According to the International Dyslexia Association:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002.
Characteristics of dyslexia are more than just reversing b's and d's. It lies in the cognitive language processes that help a student determine the sound/letter/pattern relationships in our written language. Student with dyslexia in general will have trouble hearing the correct letter/sound correspondences in words, which leads to difficulty in decoding, spelling, fluency and comprehension. Dyslexia also occurs on a spectrum, ranging from mild to severe.
2nd – 3rd
4th – 6th
Middle School/High School/Adult